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Red Gums
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The colour of the gums is generally described as coral pink. It is produced by the Vascular supply, the thickness and degree of keratinization of the epithelium and the presence of pigment containing cells. The colour of the gums varies among persons and appears to be correlated with the cutaneous pigmentation. It is lighter in blond individuals with a fair complexion than in dark complexioned brunettes. The colour of the gums may also be red, smooth and shiny. The gums are also known as gingiva.

It is that part of the oral mucosa which covers the alveolar process of the jaws and surrounds the neck of the teeth. In case of gums inflammation, they become red and swollen. It is because the normal coral pink colour of gums in maintained due to tissue vascularity and is modified by the overlying epithelial layers. For this reason, the gingival becomes redder when there is an increase in vascularization or the degree of epithelial keratinization becomes reduced or disappears. The colour of gums becomes palar when vascularization is reduced or epithelial keratinization increases.

In case of chronic inflammation, which causes red inflamed gum, the red or bluish red colour, increases in intensity as the time passes. The stopping down of venous flow will give bluish tinge. Originally, there is light red colour, then the colour changes through varying shades of red, reddish blue, and deep blue with increasing chronicity of the inflammatory process.

This type of changes start in the interdental papillac and gingival margin and spread to the attached gingival. There should be proper diagnosis. There should be proper diagnosis made in order to have a good under standing of the change in colour of the gums. The colour changes in gum may be marginal, diffuse or path like.

Causes of Red Gums

The Red Gums occurs mainly due to trauma due to occlusion. But nowadays, it may also occur due to lesions formed by local irritants. Red gums may also occur in patients suffering from Periodantitis, commonly known as Pyorrhea.

Red gums are the common features in pregnant women, and in them it occur mainly due to metabolic and endocrine disturbances. Exogenous factors such as atmospheric irritants like coal and metal dust may also induce colour change in gums. Various colouring agents in food or lozenges may also produce change in gums colour. Tobacco generally produces a gray colour of the gums.

Treatment of Red Gums

The main part of the treatment consists of the removal of cause of inflammation. If it is due to food lodgment, which has caused infection, then proper scaling should be done. Metronidazole is a good drug for the treatment of inflamed gums. It can be given in the tablet form orally or its topical applications are also available in the gel form.

Adequately gum paints should be used for proper massaging of gums. Even warm saline rinses also provides some relief in case of swollen, inflamed red gums. It necessary, antibiotics like Ciprofloxacin may be given. Moreover, there should be immediate replacement of old toothbrush with super soft bristled new toothbrush.


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