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Oral Cancer
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The squamous cell carcinoma is the most common environmental etiologic factors in the development of oral cancer are as follow:-

(1) Tabacco (2) Alcohol (3) Syphilis (4) Nutritional deficiencies (5) Sunlight (in the case of lip cancer) (6) Miscellneous factors, including heat (particularly heat from a pipe steam in cases of lip cancer), trauma, sepsis and irritation from sharp teeth and dentures (7) Viruses have also been thought to be the causative agent of coral cancer.

Smoking was found to be important factor in the development of oral cancer. Cigar and pipe smoking increased the risk for oral cancer more than cigarette smoking. Although tabacco chewing is also noted and it is a related to the development of oral leukoplakia. Syphilis leads to the cancer of lip and anterior two thirds of the tongue. Trauma in combination with other factors may act as an etiologic factor in development of oral cancer.

Types of Oral Cancer
Carcinoma of the lip:

It is a disease that occur commonly in elderly men lower lip is involved more commonly than the upper lip. The main causative agent is the use of tobacco, chiefly through pipe smoking. In such cases, chiefly the heat, the trauma of the pipe stem and the combustion and products of tobacco may result in the development of lip cancer. There is a poor and hygiene in patients with oral cancer of lip.

Symptoms : It depends upon the duration of the lesion and the nature of the growth. The tumour/cancer begins on the vermilion border of the lip to one side of the midline. As the lesion becomes large it may create a small crater-like defect. Some patients may have large fungating masses.

Treatment: It is treated either by surgical excision or K-ray radiation.

Carcinoma of the tongue:

Symptoms: The most common sign of carcinoma of the tongue is a painless mass or ulcer. But in most patients the lesion becomes painful, when it becomes secondarily infected. The typical lesions develops on the lateral border or ventral surface of the tongue. It is usually seen in a patient showing history of syphilitic glassitis.

Treatment: combination of surgery and X-ray which are of great help to the patient.

Carcinoma of the floor of the Mouth:

15% (percent) of all cases of intraoral cancer shows the cancer of the floor of mouth. Smoking, poor oral hygiene, heavy drinkness, tobacco chewing are the causative agent. Symptoms : The cancer of the floor of the mouth is on indurated ulcer of varying size situated on one side of the midline. It may or may not be painful. It occurs more commonly in the anterior portion of the floor than in the posterior area.

Treatment: Treatment of the cancer of the floor of the mouth is difficult .Lesions of the disease may secure after surgical excision. For this reason, X-ray radiation and the use of radium often given far better results than surgery.

Carcinoma of the gingival:

Carcinoma of the mandibular gingival is much more common then the maxillary gingival. Carcinoma of gingival may appear to arise after extraction of a tooth. Moreover, the gingival because of the calculars formation and collection of micro organisms, is a site of chronic inflammation and irritation which is major cause in the development of carcinoma/cancer of the gingiva. The use of X-ray radiation is not made because of damaging effect of X-ray on bone. Generally, gingival carcinoma is treated surgically.

Verrucous Carcinoma:

It is commonly seen in oral cavity. But along with that, it may also involve largyoeso phagus, external auditory meatus, lacrimal duct, skin, etc.


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