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Herpes simplex is an acute infectious disease. It is the most common viral diseases affecting man. It is caused by Herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is nowadays, reflected to as herpes virus hominis which consists principally of the skin, mucous membrane eyes and central nervous system.
What is Herpes Simplex?
There is two main types of Herpes simplex viruses:
Type 1 HSV, usually affects the face lips, oral cavity and upper body skin. Type –2 HSV, mainly affects the genitals and skin of the lower body. There are two other viruses, that belongs to the herpes virus group and they are as follow: (1) Varicell-Zoster virus (ii) Epstein-Barr Virus.
Athird Virus, commonly known as human Cytomegalovirus also belong to the same family of viruses but is in a separate genus.
Causes of Herpes Simplex
The scientist Gruter was the first to provide evidence that Herpes simplex disease was caused by an infectious agent mainly the causative virus. Moreover, the fluid of vesicles from patients with herpes simplex may also spread infection to normal person.
It has been known that he neutralizing antibodies against the herpes simplex virus present in the circulating blood of most normal adults and persisted throughout life but then also recurrent herpetic lesions commonly develops in the persons.
But, persons who do not have antibodies circulating in their body, in them the Herpes simplex infection is termed as Primary infection and the infection person having antibodies is termed as recurrent infection.
But it is a not possible to differentiate between the lesions of Primary and incorrect infections. Generally, the severe systemic manifestations and is sometimes fatal.
Herpes Simplex Diseases
Herpes Genitalis:It is caused by HSV-2. It is a common disease of the uterine cervix, vagina, vulva and penis. The type 2 virus of genital herpes is somewhat more dangerous than type-1.
Herpetic Conjunctivitis : The main clinical features of herpetic conjunctivitis are swelling and congestion of the conjunctiva. There may also be ulceration of cornea of eye. Herpetic vesicles may be seen in the eyelids and these eye lesions usually heal rapidly.
Herpetic Gingivostomatitis : Clinical features of herpetic gingivostomatitis in children includes development of fever, irritability, headache, pain upon swallowing, etc. There may be inflammation of regional lymphnodes. Within a few days the mouth becomes painful and the gingival is severally inflamed.
The lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, palate, pharynx and tonsils may also be involved. Commonly, yellowish coloured fluid-filled vesicles develop. Which there vesicles ruptures they form extremely painful by gray membrane and surrounded by an erythematous (red) halo. The ulcers vary in size, ranging from millimeters to even a centimeter in diameter. They heal spontaneously within 7 to 14 days and leaves no scar.
Herpetic labialis : If the lesions occur on the lips then it is termed as Recurrent herpes labialis. There lesions are followed by a burning or tingling sensation. Swelling or slight soreness may be felt at the site where the vesicles develop. These vesicles are small in size, that is 1 mm or less in diameter. There gray or white vesicles rupture quickly, leaving a small red ulceration. On the lips, there ruptured vesicle become covered by a brownish crust.
Herpetic Eczema : It is characterized by diffuse vascular lesions of the skin and are usually of extremely serious type.
Herpes Simplex Treatment
Till nowadays, little is provided in the way of therapy. Patients gets symptomatic relief with the use of drugs. Antiviral chemotherapeutic agent commonly available are as follow:
(a) Acyclovir (b) Vidarabine and (c) Idoxuridine.
But then also, these of doctor. Many other modalities of treatment are sometimes of benefit in some form of herpes simplex infection. Antibiotic Therapy is of good help in the prevention of secondary Herpes simplex infection. It provides both supportive and symptomatic treatment.
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