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Gum Disease
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Various gums diseases are known over the years. Gums diseases are broadly categorized into two groups, that is gingival disease that attack only the gingival and Periodontal disease, which involves the supporting structure of tooth such as Periodontium.

Causes and Types of Gum Diseases

(1) Gingivitis: It is the most commonly seen gum disease. It is defined as the inflammation is chiefly caused by bacterial plaque and various other irritating factors which favours plaque accumulation and they are often present in the gingival environment.

There may be further various types of gingivitis such as Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, Acute herpetic gingivostomatits, Allergic gingivitis, Gingivitis associated with systemic factors such as nutritional deficiencies, diabetes, etc.

Clinical Features seen during gums Inflammation or Gingivitis:

There is the change in colour of gums. The normal gum colour is coral pink but during gingivitis the colour changes to red. The colour changes from light red, reddish blue and deep blue with increasing chroncity of the inflammatory process. The gingival also becomes edematous and swollen.

(2) Gingival/Periodontal Pocket: The gingival pocket is formed by gingival enlargement with without destruction of the underlying periodontal tissues. Whereas periodontal period is formed by the destruction of the supporting periodontal tissues.

What is Gum Disease?

Clinical signs such as bluish red, thickened marginal gingival, zone from the gingival margin to the alveolar mucosa, gingival bleeding or suppuration, tooth mobility and diastema formation and symptoms such as localized pain or pain deep in the bone are observed.

(3) Gingival Abscess/Periodontal abscess:

Periodontal abscess a localized purulent inflammation in the periodontal tissues. It is also known as lateral or parietal abscess.

The abscess which is localized in the gingival and not extruding into the supporting structures are called gingival abscesses. They originate with injury to the outer surface of the gingival and may occur in the absence of a periodontal pocket.

Treatment of Gum disease

If there is inflammation of gums, then first of all, its causative factor is removed. The food lodgement that has occurred around the teeth in the gums, is needed to be removed by performing oral, prophylaxis, that is scaling

Then the regular use of gum paints is adviced in order to strengthen the gums. These gums paints should be used at least for 3 weeks continuously. Various mouthwashes, containing chlorhexidine gluconate are available which can prevent the accumulation of bacterial plaque in the gums. If Gingival abscess occurs then draining of abscess is done and in case of Periodontal pocket, curettage is necessary. Metronidazole is considered, as the drug of choice for the treatment of gum diseases.


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