Burns and Scals
Burns are due to dry hear and scalds due to moist heat.. moist heat like hot liquid or steam.
Types of burns
Dupuytren has described that there are six degree of burns. The first consists of superficial congestion, whereas in the second degree the epidermis is raised by a blister. The third degree burns is the most painful because the epidermis is destroyed and the sensitive nerve terminals are exposed. In the fourth degree the whole skin is destroyed. The first degree includes muscles, and in the sixth degree burns the whole limb is charred.
Treatment of burns
General Treatment: Severe burns are treated in special wards, which are nowadays available in many of the larger hospitals. After admission, the burnt are is covered with a sterile towel or dressing and a plasma drip is set up very soon. Intravenous morphia is given in full doses.
Haematocrit readings are taken three hourly until haemoconcentration is controlled. Those providing the treatment should take precautions against the infecting the burns and they should wear a mask when the area is exposed. If there is outpouring of exudates observed, then there is further loss of protein and therefore, a high protein intake is necessary and an adequate supply of vitamins is essential.
Local treatment of burns
Minor burns are commonly treated by the application of antiseptic aintments or picric acid Tannafax, which is anon greasy, water soluble jelly, is a useful first and dressing. A satisfactory 1 percent cetavlon and to apply penicillin cream.
The dressing of gauze and wool is retained in place with a firm crepe bandage. In case of estensive burns, application of tannic acid to large denuded areas is dangerous. It is suitable for minor burns. Treatment for extensive burns include.
(a) Pressure Dressings:
(b) Bunyan Bag:
(c) Saline Baths: